Cardiovascular Physiology – Structure of the Heart

 Cardiovascular Physiology

Cardiovascular Physiology – Structure of the Heart

Introduction –

  • The heart is the main organ or the body along with the brain.
  • The size of Men’s heart is larger than women because they are tall in size and also because of testosterone, So they gain more muscles weight.
  • The weight of Heart in males – 300 – 360 gm, whereas in females 240 – 300gm.

Heart Anatomy- 

  •  The mesodermal layer is the layer by which the heart originated and It is situated in the Thoracic cavity.
  • It’s is made up of the muscles.
  • The Pericardium is the double-walled membrane which surrounds the heart as a result, it provides protection.
  • The outer layer is also known as Parietal Pericardium and the inner layer is also known as Visceral Pericardium.
  • As a result, in between both the layers a cavity is present which is consist of fluid.
  • This fluid is called Pericardial Fluid.
  • There are three layers which involve in to form Pericardium wall, these are –
  •  The Epicardium layer is the outermost layer, Myocardium layer is the innermost layer which is consist of Cardiac muscles and the last and innermost is Endocardium.
  • The heart is made up of four chambers – 2 Atrium and 2 Ventricles.
  •  The super vena-cava vein is connected by the Right atrium.
  • Also, the left atrium is connected to the Aorta, therefore it receives blood.
  • Interatrial septum is the divider, So as a result the right and left atrium can be separated from each other.
  • Ventricles are also divided by an Interventricular septum.
  • The atrio-ventricular apertures are present in between atrium and ventricles by which they can pass blood to each other.
  • Tri-cuspid valve ( atrio-ventricular aperture) is present in between Right atrium and it’s also known as Mitral valve and ventricle and whereas Bi-cuspid on the left.

Cardiovascular physiology

Heart Physiology/ Cardiovascular Physiology

  • Heart’s main function is to circulate the blood int the whole body.
  • The study of the working of the heart is called cardiovascular physiology.
  • The heart works without interruption and it never stops working.
  • The right and left atrium are the upper part, therefore, de-oxygenated blood receives into the heart from the right atrium through superior vena-cava and also left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the Aorta.
De-oxygenated Blood
  • The deoxygenated blood comes from the Superior vena-cava, Inferior vena-cava, and also from the coronary sinus.
  • The blood pours into the right atrium and it passes to the right ventricles.
  • A pulmonary trunk,  which arises from the right ventricle and this trunk bring the deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • what is the meaning of the deoxygenated blood?

When the blood travels throughout the body to provide oxygen to the organs and bring carbon dioxide from there, and then after providing oxygen, blood becomes oxygen-less. So, the blood without oxygen and with carbon dioxide is called de-oxygenated blood.

  • Why does de-oxygenated blood pass to the lungs from the right ventricles? 

Because during breathing when we inhale the oxygen, it directly goes to the lungs and from their de-oxygenated blood carries the oxygen and releases carbon dioxide there which we exhale out, this process is called purification.

Oxygenated Blood
  • As above said, after the purification process, due to pulmonary veins now oxygenated blood will receive by Left atrium.
  • The left atrium passes blood to the left ventricle and L. ventricle to ascending aorta which puts blood into the coronary arteries and the systematic circulation of the body.
  • The left ventricle has the thickest muscles because it pumps the blood to the whole body.

Cardiovascular physiology and heart working

What is Systole and  Diastole?

Systole 

  • The ventricles pass the blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. During this, atrioventricular valves get closed, by which a sound is produced called, Lub.
  • Lub is also known as the first sound of the Heart.
  • In this, Pressure in ventricles is more than the atrium.

Diastole

  • When ventricles filled with blood which is passed by the atrium. To prevent backflow, semilunar valves get close and by which a sound is produced called, Dub.
  • Dub is also known as the second sound of the Heart
  • In this, Pressure in ventricles is less than the atrium.

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