Study of Blood – Hematology
- Blood is a connective tissue (Fluid).
- It is a vital fluid on which life depends of all the organisms.
- It is basic (base) in nature and its pH lies in between 7.3 to 7.4.
- Blood is approximately 7 to 9 percent of the total body weight.
- The volume of blood in a healthy man is 4 – 6 liters and in women, it’s 4-5 liters.
- Blood is heavier than the water.
- Blood is composed of Blood cells, Blood platelets, and also of Plasma.
- Blood cells and blood platelets collectively called as Formed elements.
A. Blood cells
- Also known as Hematocyte, Hemocyte, and Haematopoietic cells.
- Hematopoiesis is the process by which blood cells produced.
- They together form 45% volume of the total volume of blood and the rest of is by Plasma (55%).
- Type of blood cells are – RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets.
- Also known as Erythrocytes.
- Normally, their shape is of disk type.
- The absence of Nucleus.
- Red blood cells are consist of hemoglobin which is attached with 4 Iron atoms.
- Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying pigment.
- An average life-span of RBCs is 120 days.
- Normal adult human, contain 4 – 5 million RBCs.
- Erythropoietin is a hormone which is released by the kidney and also responsible for the blood cells production.
- Bone marrow is the production house of RBCs and their maturation period is of 7 days and later on released into the bloodstream.
- Graveyard of RBCs is spleen because it plays many roles like filtration, removes the excessive amount of RBCs and also filtered out dead RBCs.
- Also known as Leucocytes.
- Normally, they are irregular in shape.
- White blood cells are of different types, their nucleus shapes are different. They consist of Cytoplasm and also of a nucleus.
- They provide immunity to our body and also known as soldiers, guard or nurse cells of the body.
- WBCs are of two types – Granulocytes and Agranulocytes.
Granulocytes – Those have granulated cytoplasm. They are of three types –
- 1. Neutrophils –
- They form the 60-65% of the total WBCs.
- They are consist of a multilobed nucleus.
- Bone marrow is the site of production.
- Their life-span in tissue is about 4-5 days and in blood is 4-8 hours.
- Neutrophils are phagocytic in nature. They protect our body against foreign particles like microbes.
- 2. Basophils –
- They form only 0.5 – 1% of the total WBCs.
- Their nucleus is of S-shaped and 3-lobed.
- Bone marrow is the site of production.
- Their life-span is same as Neutrophils.
- They mainly secrets Heparin, Histamine, and Serotonin.
- Heparin – Anti-coagulent.
- Histamine – Vaso-dilator, Neuro-transmitter.
- Serotonin – Increases vascular permeability.
- 3. Eosinophils –
- Also known as Acidophils.
- They form 2-3% of the WBCs.
- The nucleus is Bi-lobed.
- Bone marrow is the site.
- Life-span is the same as the Neutrophils and Basophils.
- Their important role in immunity, antiallergic and parasitic reactions.
Agranulocytes – Without granulated cytoplasm. They are of two types-
- 1. Monocyte –
- They form 6-8% of the WBCs.
- Bean-shaped or kidney-shaped nucleus is found.
- Bone marrow is the site of formation.
- Their life-span in tissue is about months or for years, and in blood is 10-20 hours.
- They are phagocytic in nature, as a result, they contribute in immunity of the body.
- 2. Lymphocyte –
- They form 20-25% of the WBCs.
- They have a round-shape nucleus.
- The site of formation is Thymus, Lymph node spleen, Peyer’s patches and also Bone marrow.
- Their life-span can be of a few days and also of years.
- Lymphocytes are the main providers of the immunity. They secrets some antibodies in the body which kills microbes and their toxins also.
- Also known as Thrombocytes.
- They don’t consist of a nucleus.
- Their body shape is of Biconvex disk-like, round and also oval.
- Life-span of the platelets is about a week.
- When a blood vessel is injured, platelets get clumped at the site of injury and release certain chemicals called Platelet factor. They are responsible for Blood coagulation.
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- It’s of pale yellow color.
- It makes up 55% of the total volume of the blood.
- Plasma = Blood – ( RBCs + WBCs + Platelets). The portion of blood which is lack of Formed elements.
- Plasma is an extracellular fluid of the blood.
- It consists of many plasma proteins like serum albumin, fibrinogens, Prothrombins, and also serum globulins.
- Plasma carries salt, water and also enzymes
- The blood pH is maintained by Plasma also by neutralizing strong acid and base.
- Blood components are traveled throughout the body from one organ to another due to plasma because it carries them.
- It’s also conducting heat to the skin for dissipation and body immunity.
Component of Plasma
- Water – 90-92% of plasma is made up of water.
- Plasma proteins – They form only 7-8% of plasma.
- Various organic and inorganic components like mineral salts, nutrients, dissolved gases forms the remaining part of the plasma.
- Blood group depends on the classification of the Blood type.
- In blood, there is two types of Antigen A and B, and also two types of Antibody ‘a’ and ‘b’.
- Antigen ‘A’ and Antibody ‘b’ is compatible with each other and whereas Antigen ‘B’ is compatible with Antibody ‘a’.
- Antigen ‘A’ and Antibody ‘a’ are incompatible with each other and cause self-clumping and also same for antigen and antibody ‘B’ and ‘b’.
- The antigen present on the surface of RBCs and antibody present in the plasma.
- Universal donor -> O-
- Universal recipient -> AB+
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